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failed, he was fortunate in his speedy death. Few of
the invaders escaped. One division attempted to get
away by sea, but was cut to pieces at Bahrein when
it landed, and individual survivors were found years
afterwards eking out a miserable existence at Maskat.
The Flight of the Afghans,—Thus in a torrent of blood
the Afghans were drowned. They had achieved a re-
markable conquest with slender means, and, had their
fellow-tribesmen joined them in sufficient numbers, they
might have held their own for some time against the
national revival. But their barbarous organization, while
good enough for conquest, massacre, and destruction, was
totally incapable of administering the kingdom they had
won so easily. The invaders remained, therefore, a
numerically small band of hated aliens, which, even under
a fine leader like Ashraf, could not stand 'against the
troops of Nadir.
Preliminary Clause.—In the name of the most holy and indivis-
ible Trinity, we Peter L, Emperor and Autocrat of all the Russias,
to all our descendants to the throne and government of the Russian
nation. The All-Powerful, to whom we owe our existence,
makes us regard the Russian people which is constantly guided by
His light, and sustained by His Divine support, as called in the
future to be the dominant race in Europe. This idea strikes us
from the fact that European nations have for the greater part
arrived at a state of old age allied to decay, or at all events this
approaches them with rapid strides. From this it results that they
ought to be easily and assuredly conquered by a young and new
people, when the latter shall have attained all their force and
I regard the approaching invasion of the Western and Oriental
nations by the North as a periodic movement decreed and designed
by Providence, who in such a manner regenerated the Roman
people by means of an invasion of barbarians. This emigration of
men from the direction of the Pole is like the reflux of the Nile,
which at certain times nourishes with its mud the western land
of Egypt. I have found Russia to be this river, and so I leave
her. My successors will make her a great sea destined to
fertilize impoverished Europe, and if my descendants know how
to direct the waters, her waves will break through any opposing